Map Users to Groups
Defining policy rules based on user group membership rather than individual users simplifies administration because you don’t have to update the rules whenever group membership changes. The number of distinct user groups that each firewall or Panorama can reference across all policies varies by model:
- VM-50, VM-100, VM-300, PA-200, PA-220, PA-500, PA-800 Series, PA-3020, and PA-3050 firewalls: 1,000 groups
- VM-500, VM-700, PA-5020, PA-5050, PA-5060, PA-5200 Series, and PA-7000 Series firewalls, and all Panorama models: 10,000 groups
The following are best practices for group mapping in an Active Directory (AD) environment:
- If you have a single domain, you need only one group mapping configuration with an LDAP server profile that connects the firewall to the domain controller with the best connectivity. You can add up to four domain controllers to the LDAP server profile for redundancy. Note that you cannot increase redundancy beyond four domain controllers for a single domain by adding multiple group mapping configurations for that domain.
- If you have multiple domains and/or multiple forests, you must create a group mapping configuration with an LDAP server profile that connects the firewall to a domain server in each domain/forest. Take steps to ensure unique usernames in separate forests.
- If you have Universal Groups, create an LDAP server profile to connect to the Global Catalog server.
- Add an LDAP server profile.The profile defines how the firewall connects to the directory servers from which it collects group mapping information.
- SelectandDeviceServer ProfilesLDAPAdda server profile.
- Enter aProfile Nameto identify the server profile.
- Addthe LDAP servers. You can add up to four servers to the profile but they must be the sameType. For each server, enter aName(to identify the server),LDAP ServerIP address or FQDN, and serverPort(default 389).
- Select the serverType.Based on your selection (such asactive-directory), the firewall automatically populates the correct LDAP attributes in the group mapping settings. However, if you customized your LDAP schema, you might need to modify the default settings.
- For theBase DN, enter the Distinguished Name (DN) of the LDAP tree location where you want the firewall to start searching for user and group information.
- For theBind DN,PasswordandConfirm Password, enter the authentication credentials for binding to the LDAP tree.TheBind DNcan be a fully qualified LDAP name (such ascn=administrator,cn=users,dc=acme,dc=local) or a user principal name (such firstname.lastname@example.org).
- Enter theBind TimeoutandSearch Timeoutin seconds (default is 30 for both).
- ClickOKto save the server profile.
- Configure the server settings in a group mapping configuration.
- Select.DeviceUser IdentificationGroup Mapping Settings
- Addthe group mapping configuration.
- Enter a uniqueNameto identify the group mapping configuration.
- Select the LDAPServer Profileyou just created.
- (Optional) By default, theUser Domainfield is blank: the firewall automatically detects the domain names for Active Directory (AD) servers. If you enter a value, it overrides any domain names that the firewall retrieves from the LDAP source. Your entry must be the NetBIOS domain name.
- (Optional) To filter the groups that the firewall tracks for group mapping, in the Group Objects section, enter aSearch Filter(LDAP query),Object Class(group definition),Group Name, andGroup Member.
- (Optional) To filter the users that the firewall tracks for group mapping, in the User Objects section, enter aSearch Filter(LDAP query),Object Class(user definition), andUser Name.
- (Optional) To match User-ID information with email header information identified in the links and attachments of emails forwarded to WildFire™, enter the list of email domains (Domain List) in your organization. Use commas to separate multiple domains (up to 256 characters).After you clickOK(later in this procedure), PAN-OS automatically populates theMail Attributesbased on the type of LDAP server specified in theServer Profile. When a match occurs, the username in the WildFire log email header section will contain a link that opens theACCtab, filtered by user or user group.
- Make sure the group mapping configuration isEnabled(default is enabled).
- Limit which groups will be available in policy rules.Required only if you want to limit policy rules to specific groups. The combined maximum for theGroup Include ListandCustom Grouplist is 640 entries per group mapping configuration. Each entry can be a single group or a list of groups. By default, if you don’t specify groups, all groups are available in policy rules.
- Add existing groups from the directory service:
- SelectGroup Include List.
- Select the Available Groups you want to appear in policy rules and add ( ) them to the Included Groups.
- If you want to base policy rules on user attributes that don’t match existing user groups, create custom groups based on LDAP filters:
- SelectCustom GroupandAddthe group.
- Enter a groupNamethat is unique in the group mapping configuration for the current firewall or virtual system.If theNamehas the same value as the Distinguished Name (DN) of an existing AD group domain, the firewall uses the custom group in all references to that name (such as in policies and logs).
- Specify anLDAP Filterof up to 2,048 UTF-8 characters and clickOK.The firewall doesn’t validate LDAP filters, so it’s up to you to ensure they are accurate.To minimize the performance impact on the LDAP directory server, use only indexed attributes in the filter.
- ClickOKto save your changes.A commit is necessary before custom groups will be available in policies and objects.
- Commityour changes.A commit is necessary before you can use custom groups in policies and objects.After configuring the firewall to retrieve group mapping information from an LDAP server, but before configuring policies based on the groups it retrieves, the best practice is to either wait for the firewall to refresh its group mappings cache or refresh the cache manually. To verify which groups you can currently use in policies, access the firewall CLI and run theshow user groupcommand. To determine when the firewall will next refresh the group mappings cache, run theshow user group-mapping statisticscommand and check theNext Action. To manually refresh the cache, run thedebug user-id refresh group-mapping allcommand.
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