End-of-Life (EoL)

GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) Security

Mobile Network Operators use the GPRS Tunneling Protocol (GTP) on various interfaces in Roaming, Radio Access Network, and within the packet core in 3G and 4G networks. GTP allows mobile subscribers to use their phones (user equipment) to maintain a connection to a Packet Data Network (PDN) for internet access while on the move. The protocol uses tunnels to allow two GPRS support nodes (GSNs) to communicate over a GTP-based interface and separate traffic into different communication flows. GTP creates, modifies, and deletes tunnels for transporting IP payloads between the user equipment, the GPRS support nodes (GSNs) in the GPRS backbone network and the internet.
GTP comprises three types of traffic—control plane (GTP-C), user plane (GTP-U) and charging (GTP’ derived from GTP-C) traffic. Enabling GTP Security on the Palo Alto Networks firewall allows you to statefully inspect, validate, filter, and perform security checks on GTPv2-C, GTPv1-C, and GTP-U protocol messages.
View the PAN-OS releases by firewall model that support GTP Security and also view the 3GPP Technical Standards that GTPv2-C, GTPv1-C and GTP-U support.
Use the following workflow to enable stateful inspection and protocol validation for GTPv1-C, GTPv2-C, and GTP-U traffic. In addition, you can configure the firewall to inspect GTP-U content, filter GTP outer sessions based on APN, IMSI-Prefix and RAT, and enable overbilling protection for mobile subscribers.
Firewalls securing GTP traffic can be deployed in an active/passive HA; active/active HA is not supported.
  1. Enable GTP Security.
    1. Log in to the firewall web interface.
    2. Select
      Device
      Setup
      Management
      General Settings
      .
    3. Select
      GTP Security
      .
    4. Click
      OK
      .
    5. Commit
      the change.
    6. Select
      Device
      Setup
      Operations
      and
      Reboot Device
      .
    Enabling or disabling GTP Security requires a commit and reboot; the best practice is to commit and reboot at this point. After you enable GTP Security, the options for configuring and monitoring GTP traffic become available on the firewall.
  2. Create a GTP Protection profile to inspect GTP traffic.
    1. Select
      Objects
      Security Profiles
      GTP Protection
      and
      Add
      a new profile.
    2. Give the profile group a descriptive
      Name
      .
    3. If the firewall is in Multiple Virtual System Mode, enable the profile to be
      Shared
      by all virtual systems.
    4. Set up GTP Protection Profile for the GTP version(s) you want to inspect and configure the available options for filtering, overbilling protection, and the logging GTP messages for your compliance and troubleshooting needs.
  3. Allow GTP traffic on your network.
    1. Select
      Policies
      Security
      and click
      Add
      .
    2. Enter a descriptive
      Name
      for the rule in the
      General
      tab.
    3. In the
      Source
      tab, set the
      Source Zone
      .
    4. In the
      Destination
      tab, set the
      Destination Zone
      .
      As a best practice, restrict access to specific components in the EPC network; consider using address objects in the
      Destination Address
      field to enable access to specific IP addresses.
    5. In the
      Applications
      tab,
      Add
      the applications that correspond to the network services you want to safely enable. For example, select
      gtp-v1
      ,
      gtp-v2
      ,
      gtp-u
      . Make sure to select the applications you enabled for inspection in the GTP Protection profile.
    6. In the
      Service/URL Category
      tab, change the
      Service
      from
      application-default
      to
      any
      .
    7. In the
      Actions
      tab, set the
      Action Setting
      to
      Allow
      .
    8. Attach the GTP Protection profile to the Security policy rule. Select
      Profiles
      as the
      Profile Type
      and select the
      GTP inspection
      profile you set up earlier.
    9. Verify that
      Log at Session End
      is enabled. GTP session start and GTP session end events are logged only when you enable log at session start and end in a Security policy rule. The session start and session end logs are available under
      Monitor
      GTP Logs
      . All other GTP events are logged based on the settings you enabled in the GTP protection profile and are also available under
      Monitor
      GTP Logs
      .
      By default, the log storage quota for GTP is 2% of the total log storage capacity for the firewall model. Because GTP logs are high volume, increase the log quota or set up log forwarding to an external server.
    10. Click
      OK
      .
  4. (
    Optional
    ) Block GTP-v0 traffic in to your network. Add a Security policy rule to deny application
    gtp-v0
    .
    3GPP recommends that a GTPv2 or GTPv1 entity that listens to the GTPv0 port should silently discard any GTPv0 messages it receives. 3GPP Rel-8 GTPv1 specification removed support for GTPv1 to GTPv0 interworking, hence the Palo Alto Networks firewall does not support stateful inspection of GTPv0 traffic.
  5. Commit
    your policies to the running configuration on the firewall.
  6. Monitor GTP traffic to verify that you have set up GTP inspection effectively for your visibility and logging needs.

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