Authentication is a method for protecting services and applications by verifying the identities of users so that only legitimate users have access. Several firewall and Panorama features require authentication. Administrators authenticate to access the web interface, CLI, or XML API of the firewall and Panorama. End users authenticate through Captive Portal or GlobalProtect to access various services and applications. You can choose from several authentication services to protect your network and to accommodate your existing security infrastructure while ensuring a smooth user experience.
If you have a public key infrastructure, you can deploy certificates to enable authentication without users having to manually respond to login challenges (see Certificate Management). Alternatively, or in addition to certificates, you can implement interactive authentication, which requires users to authenticate using one or more methods. The following topics describe how to implement, test, and troubleshoot the different types of interactive authentication:

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