IPv6-initiated communication to the firewall is similar to source NAT for an IPv4 topology. Configure NAT64 for IPv6-Initiated Communication when your IPv6 host needs to communicate with an IPv4 server.
In the NAT64 policy rule, configure the original source to be an IPv6 host address or Any. Configure the destination IPv6 address as either the Well-Known Prefix or the NSP that the DNS64 server uses. (You do not configure the full IPv6 destination address in the rule.)
If you need to use a DNS, you need to use a DNS64 Server to convert an IPv4 DNS “A” result into an “AAAA” result merged with the NAT64 prefix. If you don’t use a DNS, you need to create the address using the IPv4 destination address and the NAT64 prefix configured on the firewall, following RFC 6052 rules.
For environments that use a DNS, the example topology below illustrates communication with the DNS64 server. The DNS64 server must be set up to use the Well-Known Prefix 64:FF9B::/96 or your Network-Specific Prefix, which must comply with RFC 6052 (/32, /40,/48,/56,/64, or /96).
On the translated side of the firewall, the translation type must be Dynamic IP and Port in order to implement stateful NAT64. You configure the source translated address to be the IPv4 address of the egress interface on the firewall. You do not configure the destination translation field; the firewall translates the address by first finding the prefix length in the original destination address of the rule and then based on the prefix, extracting the encoded IPv4 address from the original destination IPv6 address in the incoming packet.
Before the firewall looks at the NAT64 rule, the firewall must do a route lookup to find the destination security zone for an incoming packet. You must ensure that the NAT64 prefix can be reached through the destination zone assignment because the NAT64 prefix should not be routable by the firewall. The firewall would likely assign the NAT64 prefix to the default route or drop the NAT64 prefix because there is no route for it. The firewall will not find a destination zone because the NAT64 prefix is not in its routing table, associated with an egress interface and zone.
You must also configure a tunnel interface (with no termination point). You apply the NAT64 prefix to the tunnel and apply the appropriate zone to ensure that IPv6 traffic with the NAT64 prefix is assigned to the proper destination zone. The tunnel also has the advantage of dropping IPv6 traffic with the NAT64 prefix if the traffic does not match the NAT64 rule. Your configured routing protocol on the firewall looks up the IPv6 prefix in its routing table to find the destination zone and then looks at the NAT64 rule.
The following figure illustrates the role of the DNS64 server in the name resolution process. In this example, the DNS64 server is configured to use Well-Known Prefix 64:FF9B::/96.
1. A user at the IPv6 host enters the URL www.abc.com, which generates a name server lookup (nslookup) to the DNS64 server.
2. The DNS64 Server sends an nslookup to the public DNS server for www.abc.com, requesting its IPv4 address.
3. The DNS server returns an A record that provides the IPv4 address to the DNS64 server.
4. The DNS64 server sends an AAAA record to the IPv6 user, converting the IPv4 dotted decimal address 198.51.100.1 into C633:6401 hexadecimal and embedding it into its own IPv6 prefix, 64:FF9B::/96. [198 = C6 hex; 51 = 33 hex; 100 = 64 hex; 1 = 01 hex.] The result is IPv4-Embedded IPv6 Address 64:FF9B::C633:6401.
Keep in mind that in a /96 prefix, the IPv4 address is the last four octets encoded in the IPv6 address. If the DNS64 server uses a /32, /40, /48, /56 or /64 prefix, the IPv4 address is encoded as shown in RFC 6052.
Upon the transparent name resolution, the IPv6 host sends a packet to the firewall containing its IPv6 source address and destination IPv6 address 64:FF9B::C633:6401 as determined by the DNS64 server. The firewall performs the NAT64 translation based on your NAT64 rule.
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