Map Users to Groups

Defining policy rules based on user group membership rather than individual users simplifies administration because you don’t have to update the rules whenever group membership changes. The number of distinct user groups that each firewall or Panorama can reference across all policies varies by model. For more information, refer to the Compatibility Matrix.
Use the following procedure to enable the firewall to connect to your LDAP directory and retrieve Group Mapping information. You can then Enable User- and Group-Based Policy.
The following are best practices for group mapping in an Active Directory (AD) environment:
  • If you have a single domain, you need only one group mapping configuration with an LDAP server profile that connects the firewall to the domain controller with the best connectivity. You can add up to four domain controllers to the LDAP server profile for redundancy. Note that you cannot increase redundancy beyond four domain controllers for a single domain by adding multiple group mapping configurations for that domain.
  • If you have multiple domains and/or multiple forests, you must create a group mapping configuration with an LDAP server profile that connects the firewall to a domain server in each domain/forest. Take steps to ensure unique usernames in separate forests.
  • If you have Universal Groups, create an LDAP server profile to connect to the Global Catalog server.
  • Before using group mapping, configure a
    Primary Username
    for user-based security policies, since this attribute will identify users in the policy configuration, logs, and reports.
  1. Add an LDAP server profile.
    The profile defines how the firewall connects to the directory servers from which it collects group mapping information.
    1. Select
      Device
      Server Profiles
      LDAP
      and
      Add
      a server profile.
    2. Enter a
      Profile Name
      to identify the server profile.
    3. Add
      the LDAP servers. You can add up to four servers to the profile but they must be the same
      Type
      . For each server, enter a
      Name
      (to identify the server),
      LDAP Server
      IP address or FQDN, and server
      Port
      (default 389).
    4. Select the server
      Type
      .
      Based on your selection (such as
      active-directory
      ), the firewall automatically populates the correct LDAP attributes in the group mapping settings. However, if you customized your LDAP schema, you might need to modify the default settings.
    5. For the
      Base DN
      , enter the Distinguished Name (DN) of the LDAP tree location where you want the firewall to start searching for user and group information.
    6. For the
      Bind DN
      ,
      Password
      and
      Confirm Password
      , enter the authentication credentials for binding to the LDAP tree.
      The
      Bind DN
      can be a fully qualified LDAP name (such as
      cn=administrator,cn=users,dc=acme,dc=local
      ) or a user principal name (such as
      administrator@acme.local
      ).
    7. Enter the
      Bind Timeout
      and
      Search Timeout
      in seconds (default is 30 for both).
    8. Click
      OK
      to save the server profile.
  2. Configure the server settings in a group mapping configuration.
    1. Select
      Device
      User Identification
      Group Mapping Settings
      .
    2. Add
      the group mapping configuration.
    3. Enter a unique
      Name
      to identify the group mapping configuration.
    4. Select the LDAP
      Server Profile
      you just created.
    5. (
      Optional
      ) By default, the
      User Domain
      field is blank: the firewall automatically detects the domain names for Active Directory (AD) servers. If you enter a value, it overrides any domain names that the firewall retrieves from the LDAP source. Your entry must be the NetBIOS domain name.
    6. (
      Optional
      ) To filter the groups that the firewall tracks for group mapping, in the Group Objects section, enter a
      Search Filter
      (LDAP query) and
      Object Class
      (group definition).
    7. (
      Optional
      ) To filter the users that the firewall tracks for group mapping, in the User Objects section, enter a
      Search Filter
      (LDAP query), and
      Object Class
      (user definition).
    8. Make sure the group mapping configuration is
      Enabled
      (default is enabled).
  3. (Optional)
    Define User and Group Attributes to collect for user and group mapping. This step is required if you want to map users based on directory attributes other than the domain.
    1. If your User-ID sources only send the username and the username is unique across the organization, select
      Device
      User Identification
      User Mapping
      Setup
      and
      Edit
      the Setup section to
      Allow matching usernames without domains
      to allow the firewall to check if unique usernames collected from the LDAP server during group mapping match the users associated with a policy and avoid overwriting the domain in your source profile.
      Before enabling this option, configure group mapping for the LDAP group containing the User-ID source (such as GlobalProtect or Captive Portal) that collects the mappings. After you commit the changes, the User-ID source populates the usernames without domains. Only usernames collected during group mapping can be matched without a domain. If your User-ID sources send user information in multiple formats and you enable this option, verify that the attributes collected by the firewall have a unique prefix. To ensure users are identified correctly if you enable this option, all attributes for group mapping should be unique. If the username is not unique, the firewall logs an error in the Debug logs.
    2. Select
      Device
      User Identification
      Group Mapping Settings
      Add
      User and Group Attributes
      User Attributes
      and enter the
      Directory Attribute
      you want to collect for user identification. Specify a
      Primary Username
      to identify the user on the firewall and to represent the user in reports and logs that will override any other format the firewall receives from the User-ID source.
      When you select the Server Profile
      Type
      , the firewall auto-populates the values for the user and group attributes. Based on the user information that your User-ID sources send, you may need to configure the correct attributes:
      • User Principal Name (UPN)
        :
        userPrincipalName
      • NetBios Name
        :
        sAMAccountName
      • Email ID
        : Directory attribute for that email
      • Multiple formats
        : Retrieve the user mapping attributes from the user directory before enabling your User-ID sources.
      If you do not specify a primary username, the firewall uses the following default values for each server profile type:
      Attribute
      Active Directory
      Novell eDirectory or Sun ONE Directory Server
      Primary Username
      sAMAccountName
      uid
      E-Mail
      mail
      mail
      Alternate Username 1
      userPrincipalName
      None.
      Group Name
      name
      cn
      Group Member
      member
      member
    3. (Optional)
      Specify an
      E-Mail
      address format and up to three
      Alternate Username
      formats.
    4. Select
      Device
      User Identification
      Group Mapping Settings
      Add
      User and Group Attributes
      Group Attributes
      and specify the
      Group Name
      ,
      Group Member
      , and
      E-Mail
      address formats.
      You must commit before the firewall collects the directory attributes from the LDAP server.
  4. Limit which groups will be available in policy rules.
    Required only if you want to limit policy rules to specific groups. The combined maximum for the
    Group Include List
    and
    Custom Group
    list is 640 entries per group mapping configuration. Each entry can be a single group or a list of groups. By default, if you don’t specify groups, all groups are available in policy rules.
    Any custom groups you create will also be available in the Allow List of authentication profiles (Configure an Authentication Profile and Sequence).
    1. Add existing groups from the directory service:
      1. Select
        Group Include List
        .
      2. Select the Available Groups you want to appear in policy rules and add ( add_icon.png ) them to the Included Groups.
    2. If you want to base policy rules on user attributes that don’t match existing user groups, create custom groups based on LDAP filters:
      1. Select
        Custom Group
        and
        Add
        the group.
      2. Enter a group
        Name
        that is unique in the group mapping configuration for the current firewall or virtual system.
        If the
        Name
        has the same value as the Distinguished Name (DN) of an existing AD group domain, the firewall uses the custom group in all references to that name (such as in policies and logs).
      3. Specify an
        LDAP Filter
        of up to 2,048 UTF-8 characters and click
        OK
        .
        The firewall doesn’t validate LDAP filters, so it’s up to you to ensure they are accurate.
        To minimize the performance impact on the LDAP directory server, use only indexed attributes in the filter.
    3. Click
      OK
      to save your changes.
      You must commit before custom groups will be available in policies and objects.
  5. Commit
    your changes.
    You must commit before you can use custom groups in policies and objects and before the firewall can collect the attributes from the LDAP server.
    After configuring the firewall to retrieve group mapping information from an LDAP server, but before configuring policies based on the groups it retrieves, the best practice is to either wait for the firewall to refresh its group mappings cache or refresh the cache manually. To verify which groups you can currently use in policies, access the firewall CLI and run the
    show user group
    command. To determine when the firewall will next refresh the group mappings cache, run the
    show user group-mapping statistics
    command and check the
    Next Action
    . To manually refresh the cache, run the
    debug user-id refresh group-mapping all
    command.
  6. Verify that the user and group mapping has correctly identified users.
    1. Select
      Device
      User Identification
      Group Mapping
      Group Include List
      to confirm the firewall has fetched all of the groups.
    2. To verify that all of the user attributes have been correctly captured, use the following CLI command:
      show user user-attributes user all
      The normalized format for the User Principal Name (UPN), primary username, email attributes, and any configured alternate usernames display for all users:
      admin@PA-VM-8.1> show user user-attributes user all
      Primary: nam\sam-user Email: sam-user@nam.com
      Alt User Names:1) nam.com\sam-user
      2) nam\sam-user-upn
      3) sam-user-upn@nam.local
      4) sam-user@nam.com
    3. Verify that the usernames are correctly displayed in the
      Source User
      column under
      Monitor
      Logs
      Traffic
      .
      monitor-logs-traffic-source-user.png
    4. Verify that the users are mapped to the correct usernames in the
      User Provided by Source
      column under
      Monitor
      Logs
      User-ID
      .
      monitor-user-id-user-provided-by-source.png

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