Kubernetes auditing

The Kubernetes auditing system records the activities of users, administrators, and other components, that have affected the cluster. Prisma Cloud can ingest, analyze, and alert on security-relevant events. Write custom rules or leverage Prisma Cloud Labs prewritten rules to assess the incoming audit stream and surface suspicious activity.
Audits types are limited to the ones been configured by the audit policy of the cloud provider.

Rule library

Custom rules are stored in a central library, where they can be reused. Besides your own rules, Prisma Cloud Labs also distributes rules via the Intelligence Stream. These rules are shipped in a disabled state by default. You can review, and optionally apply them at any time.
Your Kubernetes audit policy is defined in
Defend > Access > Kubernetes
, and formulated from the rules in your library. There are four types of rules, but the only one relevant to the audit policy is the kubernetes-audit type. Custom rules are written and managed in Console under
Defend > Custom rules > Runtime
with an online editor. The compiler checks for syntax errors when you save a rule.

Expression grammar

Expressions let you examine contents of a Kubernetes audit. Expressions have the following grammar:
  • term
    integer | string | keyword | event | '(' expression ')' | unaryOp term
  • in
    '(' integer | string (',' integer | string)*)?
  • op
    and | or | > | < | >= | ⇐ | = | !=
  • unaryOp
  • keyword
    startswith | contains
  • string
    Strings must be enclosed in double quotes
  • integer
  • event
    process, file system, or network

Kubernetes audit events

When Prisma Cloud receives an audit, it is assessed against your policy. Like all policies in Prisma Cloud, rule order is important. Rules are processed top to bottom, and processing stops at the first match. When a rule matches, an alert is raised.
Write rules to surface audits of interest. Rules are written with the jpath function. The jpath function extracts fields from JSON objects, which is the format of a Kubernetes audit. The extracted string can then be compared against strings of interest. The primary operators for jpath expressions are '=', 'in', and 'contains'. For non-trivial examples, look at the Prisma Cloud Lab rules.
The argument to jpath is a single string. The right side of the expression must also be a string. A basic rule with a single jpath expression has the following form:
jpath("path.in.json.object") = "something"
Let’s look at some examples using the following JSON object as our example audit.
{ "user":{ "uid":"1234", "username":"some-user-name", "groups":[ "group1", "group2" ] }, "stage":"ResponseComplete" }
To examine a user’s UID, use the following syntax. This expression evaluates to true.
jpath("user.uid") = "1234"
To examine the username, use the following syntax:
jpath("user.username") = "some-user-name"
To examine the stage field, use the following syntax:
jpath("stage") = "ResponseComplete"
To examine the groups list field, use the following syntax:
jpath("user.groups") contains "group1"
Or alternatively:
jpath("user.groups") in ("group1","group2")

Integrating with self-managed clusters

Prisma Cloud supports self-managed clusters. See here for supported Kubernetes versions. You can deploy clusters with any number of tools, including kubeadm.
You’ve already deployed a Kubernetes cluster.

Configure the API server

Configure the API server to forward audits to Prisma Cloud.
To configure the audit webhook backend:
  • Create an audit policy file that specifies the events to record and the data events should contain.
  • Create a configuration file that defines the backend details and configurations.
  • Update the API server config file to point to your audit policy and configuration files.
If your API server runs as a pod, then the audit policy and configuration files must be placed in a directory mounted by the API server pod. Either place the files in an already mounted directory, or create a new one.
If flags/objects related to AuditSink/dynamic auditing were previously added to your API server configuration, remove them. Otherwise, this setup won’t work.
  1. Specify the audit policy.
    Create a file called audit-policy.yaml with the following recommended policy:
    apiVersion: audit.k8s.io/v1 # This is required. kind: Policy # Generate audit events only for ResponseComplete or panic stages of a request. omitStages: - "RequestReceived" - "ResponseStarted" rules: # Audit on pod exec/attach events - level: Request resources: - group: "" resources: ["pods/exec", "pods/attach"] # Audit on pod creation events - level: Request resources: - group: "" resources: ["pods"] verbs: ["create"] # Audit on changes to the twistlock namespace (defender daemonset) - level: Request verbs: ["create", "update", "patch", "delete"] namespaces: ["twistlock"] # Default catch all rule - level: None
    More details can be found here.
  2. Create a configuration file.
    Create a configuration file named audit-webhook.yaml.
    For the server address, <console_url_webhook_suffix>, do the following
    Step 1. Perform GET /api/v1/settings/kubernetes-audit and get the suffix. example response: { "webhookUrlSuffix": "Rov4TLMx1UiaJuP99OyulwQVUT0=", "lastPollingTime": null }
    Step 2. Append the suffix to your console URL
    apiVersion: v1 kind: Config preferences: {} clusters: - name: <cluster_name> cluster: server: <console_url_webhook_suffix> # compute console endpoint as stated above contexts: - name: webhook context: cluster: <cluster_name> user: kube-apiserver current-context: webhook
  3. Move the config files into place.
    Move both audit-policy.yaml and audit-webhook.yaml to a directory that holds your API server config files. If the API server runs as a pod, move the files to a directory that is accessible to the pod. Accessible directories can be found in the API server config file under mounts.
    Alternatively, create a new directory and add it to mounts. For more information, see here.
  4. Add flags.
    Configure the API server to use the policy and configuration files you just created. Add the following flags to the API server config file:
    spec: containers: - command: # Existing flags ... # New flags for Prisma Cloud: - --audit-policy-file=<PATH-TO-API-SERVER-CONFIG-FILES>/audit-policy.yaml - --audit-webhook-config-file=<PATH-TO-API-SERVER-CONFIG-FILES>/audit-webhook.yaml
    When changing the kube-apiserver config file, the API server automatically restarts. It can take a few minutes for the API server to resume operations.

Integrating with Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE)

On GKE, Prisma Cloud retrieves audits from Stackdriver, polling it every 10 minutes for new data.
Note that there can be some delay between the time an event occurs in the cluster and when it appears in Stackdriver. Due to Twistock’s polling mechanism, there’s another delay between the time an audit arrives in Stackdriver and when it appears in Prisma Cloud.
See here for GKE cluster versions supported by Prisma Cloud.
You’ve created a service account with one of the following authorization scopes:
  • https://www.googleapis.com/auth/logging.read
  • https://www.googleapis.com/auth/logging.admin
  • https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform.read-only
  • https://www.googleapis.com/auth/cloud-platform
  1. Open Console.
  2. Go to
    Defend > Access > Kubernetes
  3. Set
    Kubernetes auditing
  4. Click
    Add settings
    to configure how Prisma Cloud connects to your cloud provider’s managed Kubernetes service.
    1. Set
    2. Select your GKE credential.
      If there are no accounts to select, add one to the xref:~/authentication/credentials-store/credentials-store.adoc[credentials store].