Secure an AKS Cluster

Learn how Panorama can secure inbound traffic to an AKS cluster.
To enable Panorama to connect to the load balancers in an Azure Kubernetes Services (AKS) cluster, you must configure the Azure plugin on Panorama to establish a connection with your AKS cluster. You must also configure the device groups and templates to which the firewalls belong so that Panorama can push configuration objects and policy rules to your managed firewalls.

Plan Your AKS Deployment

To secure a web application running as a service within a Kubernetes cluster you must first plan connectivity for your VNets, subnets, and UDRs. VM-Series firewalls and Panorama provide security for and visibility into your Kubernetes services.

Use the Template to Deploy an AKS Cluster

The Azure AKS template is a sample that provisions a cluster in a new VNet.
You must specify CIDR ranges for the VNet, VNet subnet, and the service. The CIDR ranges must not overlap.
  1. On GitHub, go to PaloAltoNetworks/azure-aks and locate the build package in the repository.
  2. Unzip the build package. Edit the files
    azuredeploy.json
    and
    parameters.json
    for your own deployment, and save.
  3. Issue the following Azure CLI commands to deploy the template.
    az group deployment validate --resource-group RG_NAME --template-file azuredeploy.json --parameters @parameters.json
    az group deployment create --name DEPLOYMENT_NAME --resource-group RG_NAME --template-file azuredeploy.json --parameters @parameters.json
  4. Deploy your applications or services on the AKS cluster.
    1. Annotate your service YAML file so that the type is load balancer, and annotate it as
      service.beta.kubernetes.io/azure-load-balancer-internal: "true"
      . For example:
      apiVersion: v1
      kind: Service
      metadata: name: azure-vote-front labels: service: "azure-vote-front" tier: "stagingapp"
      annotations: service.beta.kubernetes.io/azure-load-balancer-internal: "true"
      spec:
      type: LoadBalancer
      ports: - port: 80 selector: app: azure-vote-front
    2. If you have not done so, create AKS cluster authentication before continuing.
    3. Deploy your service on your AKS cluster.
      For example, you can deploy your application through
      kubectl
      :
      kubectl apply -f myapplication.yaml
    4. Use
      kubectl
      to get the IP address for the deployed service.
      kubectl get services -o wide
      plugin-azure-aks-kub-get-svc.png
      In the EXTERNAL-IP column 10.240.0.97 is for the ILB, according to your annotation in Step a. Use the service IP address to create a user-defined route on Azure.
  5. Create a UDR rule to point your service to the Firewall ILB behind the Application Gateway.
    In Azure, go to your inbound spoke resource group, view the route table and add a new route based on the destination service IP address. In the following screen, the value in the tov1service
    ADDRESS PREFIX
    column is the service IP address.
    plugin-azure-aks-udr-svc-ip.png

Connect the AKS Cluster in Azure Plugin on Panorama

This task assumes you have deployed the Auto Scaling solution, and that you have created templates, template stacks and device groups.
See the Panorama online help for more on filling out each form.
  1. Select
    Panorama
    Azure
    AutoScaling
    to view the auto scaling definition you created when you configured Auto Scaling. As shown below, if
    Auto Program Routes
    is enabled, the firewall routes are programmed for you.
    plugin-azure-aks-monitoring-def.png
  2. In AKS, tag your Resource Groups. The tags are name/value pairs.
    1. Select
      Home
      Resource groups
      and choose a resource group.
    2. Select
      Tags
      and define name/value pairs. As shown in the following figure, the tag names must be
      inboundgrouprg
      and
      HubRG
      :
      • inboundgrouprg
        —Your spoke resource group name.
      • HubRG
        —Your hub resource group name.
      plugin-azure-aks-cluster-tags.png
      The template takes the spoke resource group name as a parameter and uses it to tag the VNet and the AKS cluster so the Azure auto scaling plugin for Panorama can discover them.
    The templates deploy resources in separate VNets. If you manually deploy the AKS cluster and service in the same VNet as the spoke firewall set, you must manually create tags for the spoke resource group name.
  3. In Panorama, select
    Panorama
    Azure
    Setup.
    1. On the
      General
      tab, enable monitoring.
    2. On the
      Notify Groups
      tab,
      Add
      a notification group and select the device groups to be notified.
      plugin-azure-aks-notify-group.png
    3. On the
      Service Principal
      tab,
      Add
      and
      Validate
      a service principal.
      Use the service principal you created when you configured auto scaling.
      plugin-azure-aks-add-service-principal.png
    4. On the
      AKS Cluster
      tab,
      Add
      an AKS cluster.
      • Enter the exact name of the AKS cluster.
      • Enter the API server address. To find the address in Azure, view your AKS service and select Overview.
      • Upload the AKS credential JSON file (see Create AKS Cluster Authentication).
    5. Fill in the remaining fields and
      Add
      one or more tags.
      If you have service names or tags that are not unique across namespaces, use the label selector to filter both a tag and a namespace so that you get a unique result.
      plugin-azure-aks-add-cluster-and-tag.png
  4. Select
    Panorama
    Azure
    Monitoring Definition
    1. Add a Monitoring definition.
    2. Enter a name and description, and select
      AKS Cluster Monitoring
      .
    3. Select an
      AKS Cluster
      and a
      Notify Group
      , check
      Enable
      , and click
      OK
      .
      plugin-azure-aks-add-monitoring-def.png

Set Up VNet Peering

If you plan to use an address group to identify traffic, be sure to add the subnet address group to your top-level Panorama policy before you configure peering.
After deploying an AKS cluster, set up VNet peering from the inbound VNet to your cluster, and from your cluster to the firewall VNet.

Redirect Traffic to a Firewall ILB

You must manually create user defined routes (UDRs) and routing rules to redirect traffic to a particular ILB. For an example, see how the diagram in “How Does the Panorama Plugin for Azure Secure Kubernetes Services?” depicts an inbound UDR.
  1. Create URL routing rules that redirect web traffic to the appropriate backend pool.
  2. Update the UDR rules for the Application Gateway subnet to add a route for the service CIDR, with the next hop being the inbound firewall load balancer from the spoke firewall resource group.

Apply Policy to Your AKS Service

  1. In Panorama, select
    Policies
    .
  2. In the
    Device Group
    list, choose the device group for your AKS service.
  3. Add
    a Security policy rule. Fill out the form, and on the
    Destination
    tab
    Add
    the destination address or address group.
    plugin-azure-aks-ag-policy-rule.png

Deploy and Secure AKS Services

These steps outline how you can secure inbound and outbound traffic traversing to Kubernetes services using VM-Series firewall and the Azure plugin for Panorama.
  1. In the application deployment environment, create a YAML file for the application or use a file that already exists.
    The following is a sample application YAML file:
    apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: azure-vote-back spec: replicas: 1 selector: matchLabels: app: azure-vote-back template: metadata: labels: app: azure-vote-back spec: containers: - name: azure-vote-back image: redis resources: requests: cpu: 100m memory: 128Mi limits: cpu: 250m memory: 256Mi ports: - containerPort: 6379 name: redis --- apiVersion: v1 kind: Service metadata: name: azure-vote-back labels: service: backend spec: ports: - port: 6379 selector: app: azure-vote-back --- apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: azure-vote-front spec: replicas: 5 selector: matchLabels: app: azure-vote-front template: metadata: labels: app: azure-vote-front spec: containers: - name: azure-vote-front image: microsoft/azure-vote-front:v1 resources: requests: cpu: 100m memory: 128Mi limits: cpu: 250m memory: 256Mi ports: - containerPort: 80 env: - name: REDIS value: "azure-vote-back" ---apiVersion: v1 kind: Service metadata: name: azure-vote-front labels: service: "azure-vote-front" type: "production" providesecurity: "yes" a: "value" b: "value" c: "value" tier: "stagingapp" annotations: service.beta.kubernetes.io/azure-load-balancer-internal: "true" spec: type: LoadBalancer ports: - port: 80 selector: app: azure-vote-front
  2. Edit your YAML file to label Kubernetes services.
    Labels enable the corresponding tag-to-IP mapping to be created when you use the Panorama plugin for AKS to connect to the cluster. For example, in the above sample file look for the application labels in the service metadata. They are:
    azure-vote-back
    and
    azure-vote-front
    .
  3. In your AKS cluster, apply the YAML file.
  4. In Panorama, create an address group using a resource group tag.
    1. On the
      Objects
      tab, select a device group from the
      Device Group
      list.
    2. Select
      Address Groups
      and
      Add
      an address group.
      1. Specify a name, and select the
        Dynamic
        type.
      2. Add
        addresses. Opens a window that lists detected addresses. Populating the list can take several minutes.
      3. You can choose one or more addresses for the
        Match
        criteria. Select
        AND
        or
        OR
        for the criteria relationship.
      4. If you have many addresses, enter a string in the search box to filter the output, as shown in the following figure.
      5. In the address list, click the
        +
        to include the address in the address group match criteria.
      6. When the
        Match
        criteria is complete, click
        OK
        .
      plugin-azure-aks-ag-create.png
  5. Show Policy using the address group.
    plugin-azure-aks-ag-in-policy.png
  6. View secured AKS services.
    In
    Panorama
    Azure
    AutoScaling
    , view your monitoring definition, and in the
    Action
    column select the
    Protected Applications and Services
    link.
    The
    Protected?
    column summarizes the security status of your resource groups. It might take several minutes for the window to populate. If you have many resource groups, enter a string in the search box to filter the output.
    This output is based on the Azure resource group configuration; it does not query the device group or template stack membership.
    plugin-azure-aks-protected-def.png

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