Keys and Certificates for Decryption Policies
Keys are strings of numbers that are typically generated using a mathematical operation involving random numbers and large primes. Keys are used to transform other strings—such as passwords and shared secrets—from plaintext to ciphertext (called
encryption) and from ciphertext to plaintext (called
decryption). Keys can be symmetric (the same key is used to encrypt and decrypt) or asymmetric (one key is used for encryption and a mathematically related key is used for decryption). Any system can generate a key.
X.509 certificates are used to establish trust between a client and a server in order to establish an SSL connection. A client attempting to authenticate a server (or a server authenticating a client) knows the structure of the X.509 certificate and therefore knows how to extract identifying information about the server from fields within the certificate, such as its FQDN or IP address (called a
CNwithin the certificate) or the name of the organization, department, or user to which the certificate was issued. All certificates must be issued by a certificate authority (CA). After the CA verifies a client or server, the CA issues the certificate and signs it with a private key.
With a decryption policy configured, a session between the client and the server is established only if the firewall trusts the CA that signed the server certificate. In order to establish trust, the firewall must have the server root CA certificate in its certificate trust list (CTL) and use the public key contained in that root CA certificate to verify the signature. The firewall then presents a copy of the server certificate signed by the Forward Trust certificate for the client to authenticate. You can also configure the firewall to use an enterprise CA as a forward trust certificate for SSL Forward Proxy. If the firewall does not have the server root CA certificate in its CTL, the firewall will present a copy of the server certificate signed by the Forward Untrust certificate to the client. The Forward Untrust certificate ensures that clients are prompted with a certificate warning when attempting to access sites hosted by a server with untrusted certificates.
For detailed information on certificates, see Certificate Management.
To control the trusted CAs that your firewall trusts, use the
tab on the firewall web interface.
Default Trusted Certificate Authorities
The table describes the different keys and certificates used by Palo Alto Networks firewalls for decryption. As a best practice, use different keys and certificates for each usage.
The certificate the firewall presents to clients during decryption if the site the client is attempting to connect to has a certificate that is signed by a CA that the firewall trusts. To configure a Forward Trust certificate on the firewall, see 2 in the Configure SSL Forward Proxy task. By default, the firewall determines the key size to use for the client certificate based on the key size of the destination server. However, you can also set a specific key size for the firewall to use. See Configure the Key Size for SSL Forward Proxy Server Certificates. For added security, store the forward trust certificate on a Hardware Security Module (HSM), see Store Private Keys on an HSM.
SSL Exclude Certificate
Certificates for servers that you want to exclude from SSL decryption. For example, if you have SSL decryption enabled, but have certain servers that you do not want included in SSL decryption, such as the web services for your HR systems, you would import the corresponding certificates onto the firewall and configure them as SSL Exclude Certificates. See Exclude a Server from Decryption.
SSL Inbound Inspection
The certificate used to decrypt inbound SSL traffic for inspection and policy enforcement. For this application, you would import the server certificate for the servers for which you are performing SSL inbound inspection, or store them on an HSM (see Store Private Keys on an HSM).
Table: Palo Alto Networks Firewall Keys and Certificates