Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Secure Shell (SSH) are encryption protocols used to secure traffic between two entities, such as a web server and a client. SSL and SSH encapsulate traffic, encrypting data so that it is meaningless to entities other than the client and server with the keys to decode the data and the certificates to affirm trust between the devices. Traffic that has been encrypted using the protocols SSL and SSH can be decrypted to ensure that these protocols are being used for the intended purposes only, and not to conceal unwanted activity or malicious content.
Palo Alto Networks firewalls decrypt encrypted traffic by using keys to transform strings (passwords and shared secrets) from ciphertext to plaintext (decryption) and from plaintext back to ciphertext (re-encrypting traffic as it exits the firewall). Certificates are used to establish the firewall as a trusted third party and to create a secure connection. SSL decryption (both forward proxy and inbound inspection) requires certificates to establish trust between two entities in order to secure an SSL/TLS connection. Certificates can also be used when excluding servers from SSL decryption. You can integrate a hardware security module (HSM) with a firewall to enable enhanced security for the private keys used in SSL forward proxy and SSL inbound inspection decryption. To learn more about storing and generating keys using an HSM and integrating an HSM with your firewall, see Secure Keys with a Hardware Security Module. SSH decryption does not require certificates.
Palo Alto Networks firewall decryption is policy-based, and can be used to decrypt, inspect, and control both inbound and outbound SSL and SSH connections. Decryption policies allow you to specify traffic for decryption according to destination, source, or URL category and in order to block or restrict the specified traffic according to your security settings. The firewall uses certificates and keys to decrypt the traffic specified by the policy to plaintext, and then enforces App-ID and security settings on the plaintext traffic, including Decryption, Antivirus, Vulnerability, Anti-Spyware, URL Filtering, WildFire Submissions, and File-Blocking profiles. After traffic is decrypted and inspected on the firewall, the plaintext traffic is re-encrypted as it exits the firewall to ensure privacy and security. Use policy-based decryption on the firewall to:
- Prevent malware concealed as encrypted traffic from being introduced into an corporate network.
- Prevent sensitive corporate information from moving outside the corporate network.
- Ensure the appropriate applications are running on a secure network.
- Selectively decrypt traffic; for example, exclude traffic for financial or healthcare sites from decryption by configuring a decryption exception.
The three decryption policies offered on the firewall, SSL Forward Proxy, SSL Inbound Inspection, and SSH Proxy, all provide methods to specifically target and inspect SSL outbound traffic, SSL inbound traffic, and SSH traffic, respectively. The decryption policies provide the settings for you to specify what traffic to decrypt and you can attach a decryption profile to a policy rule to apply more granular security settings to decrypted traffic, such as checks for server certificates, unsupported modes, and failures. This policy-based decryption on the firewall gives you visibility into and control of SSL and SSH encrypted traffic according to configurable parameters.
You can also choose to extend a decryption configuration on the firewall to include Decryption Mirroring, which allows for decrypted traffic to be forwarded as plaintext to a third party solution for additional analysis and archiving.
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