: Device Profile Behaviors

Device Profile Behaviors

Table of Contents

Device Profile Behaviors

View observed network behaviors of IoT devices in the same device profile across multiple
IoT Security
To access the Overview page of a device profile, select
Profiles >
> Behaviors
The Behaviors page displays the behaviors of high-confidence IoT devices in this profile. These are IoT devices that
IoT Security
has identified with a high degree of confidence and has calculated a confidence score of 90-100%. The behaviors are those of IoT devices belonging to the same profile in your local network environment and in the network environments of other
IoT Security
A confidence score indicates the level of confidence
IoT Security
has in its identification of a device.
IoT Security
has three confidence levels based on calculated confidence scores: high (90-100%), medium (70-89%), and low (0-69%).

Filter the Content Displayed

The behaviors displayed on this page and in the related Sankey chart are controlled by the filters at the top of the page; the option to show either outbound or inbound behaviors; and the option to show common applications, unique applications, or both (the default) under Applications in the Profile Behaviors section.
The time filter also determines which outbound, or inbound, behaviors are displayed.
You can only create a policy rule set for outbound behaviors; that is, when the source of a behavior is an IoT device in a device profile.
IoT Security
does not generate policy rule recommendations for inbound behaviors, which is when the IoT device is the destination.
Time filter
– The time filter controls the behaviors displayed on the Behaviors page by when each behavior was observed on the network during the past 1 Day (past 24 hours up until now), past 1 Week, or past 1 Month. Clicking the
Reset filter
icon ( ) sets the time to 1 Day and removes any additional filters you might have set.
Add Filters
– Add filters to show specific types of behaviors. Select one or more of the following:
  • Applications
    – Select and choose one or more applications to show on the page. The applications listed were part of high-confidence IoT device behaviors observed on the network during the period of time set in the time filter.
  • Local Observed
    – Select and choose
    to show behaviors observed locally in your network or
    to hide locally observed behaviors.
  • App Usage
    – Select and determine what to show based on where behaviors were observed:
    • Common only
      are behaviors that were observed in other
      IoT Security
      tenant environments but not in yours.
    • Common and local
      are behaviors observed in other tenant environments and in yours.
    • Local only
      are behaviors observed in your environment but not in the environment of any other tenant.
  • Unexpected behavior
    – Select and choose
    to show behaviors that were explicitly not permitted when the policy set was activated but have since appeared on the network. Choose
    to hide unexpected behaviors.
  • New behavior
    – Select and choose
    to show behaviors discovered on the network after the last policy set activation. Choose
    to hide new behaviors.
None of these filters nor the time filter determines which behaviors to include in any policy sets you might create. They only determine what to show on the Behaviors page. However, once you start the process of creating a policy set,
IoT Security
presents a similar set of filters to use within the context of policy creation.
As you add and remove filters, the number in parentheses next to “Profile Behavior” changes accordingly. Refer to this for a quick reference of how the filters affect the number of behaviors that appear on the page while the filters are in place.
Outbound Behaviors
Inbound Behaviors
– By default outbound behaviors are shown. These are behaviors in which this device profile is the source of network activity.
In the upper screen capture of the two below, there are 66 outbound behaviors:
  • 10 outbound behaviors include common applications observed in both your and other tenants’ environments. These are indicated with a green fill in the Venn diagram and bar chart.
  • 56 include applications that are unique to your environment. These are indicated as gray.
In the lower screen capture, there are 11 inbound behaviors, which are behaviors in which this device profile is the destination of network activity:
  • 9 inbound behaviors include common applications observed in other tenants’ environments but not in yours. These are indicated with a green outline in the Venn diagram and bar chart.
  • 1 includes a common application observed in both your and other tenants’ environments. This is indicated with a green fill.
  • 1 includes a unique application observed only in your environment. This is indicated as gray.
The direction you choose—outbound or inbound—controls what’s shown in the list at the bottom of the Behaviors page and in the Sankey chart. Your choice also shows or hides the
Create Policy
button, only showing it when
Outbound Behaviors
is active. Clicking the number to the right of the bar charts also controls whether to show common or unique applications on the page and in the Sankey chart. To undo the filter applied by clicking either of these numbers, click the
Reset filter
icon ( ) next to the time filter near the top of the page.

Create a Policy Set

IoT Security
recommendations to create policy rule sets based on the observed network behaviors of IoT devices in the same device profile. For instructions on creating a policy set, see Create a Policy Set in IoT Security.
From PAN-OS 11.1, there's a different process for recommending Security policy rules to next-generation firewalls from that described here. The following workflow remains applicable to firewalls running PAN-OS versions prior to PAN-OS 11.1.

View the Sankey Chart

A Sankey chart is a diagram with lines indicating connections. Click
View Sankey Chart
to open a panel on the right showing the flow of applications from a source (the current device profile in outbound behaviors) to destinations and the destination locations (internal or external). The lines are color coded as explained above and grouped into these three groups:
  • Gray for unique local applications
  • Green fill for common applications locally observed
  • Green outline for common applications not locally observed
A dash appears for an internal destination when the device profile of a destination is unknown. The number after a destination indicates the number of different IP addresses at the destination profile (for internal destinations) or behind the domain name (for external destinations).
Because the Sankey chart can become overwhelming when there are lots of lines, you can apply filters to reduce their number. For example, applying a filter that shows only locally observed applications reduces the number of lines in the diagram shown above from 24 to 11 while also increasing line width. See below.
You can also apply an application filter. For example, if there is one application that interests you, you can show only behaviors that include that. You can also filter by multiple applications. The following screen capture shows outbound behaviors just for NTP.
Another feature of the chart is that you can hover your cursor over lines and blue bars to see information pop-ups. In the screen capture above, the cursor is hovering over the destination bar where one of the common behaviors crosses it to show a pop-up identifying its particular destination. This is useful for seeing complete destination profile names and domain names, which are abbreviated in the chart.

View the Behaviors Table

At the bottom of the Behaviors page is a table listing all the behaviors for this profile matching the filters that have been set: the time filter and additional filters near the top of the page, the outbound or inbound behaviors toggle, and the common or unique application numbers under Detail Applications. The data in the table is aggregated with behaviors grouped by application.
The App Risk column contains the risk level for this application as defined in Applipedia. Risk levels are graded from 1 to 5, with numbers approaching 5 carrying increasingly more risk. Hover your cursor over the application name to display a pop-up panel with information about the application retrieved from Applipedia. For explanations about this information, see IoT Device Applications Discovery.
The number of Security alert instances and their severity levels are presented in the Alerts Raised column. For outbound behaviors, you can see the number of alert instances that occurred on devices in the source profile for the application in each row.
For inbound behaviors, the Alerts Raised column shows the number of alert instances that occurred on devices in the destination profile for an application.
Alert instance totals in the Alerts Raised column are grouped by their severity level: critical, high, medium, and low. The following icons indicate these four levels:
A behavior for a source device profile and application might have numerous destinations. You can drag the destination column to widen it but that still might not be sufficient to see all of them. To open a panel with detailed information, click anywhere in the destination field.
The View Destination for
panel provides its own table with rows for each individual destination to which devices in the source device profile sent a particular application. Hover your cursor over a number in the Destination IP column to see a pop-up with a list of IP addresses.
If you are looking for a specific destination IP address and the list of addresses is too long for the Destination IP pop-up to display them all, click the number in the Destination IP column and a dialog box appears with a search option.
In the Behaviors table, the Location column indicates where the destinations of a behavior are. If all the destinations are in the local network, the location is
. If all the destinations are outside the local network, the destination is
. If some destinations are internal and some external, then the location is both. In this case, you can see the location of individual destinations by clicking in the Destination column in the Behaviors table and looking at the Location column in the View Destination for

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